The word counselling, in the generic sense of the term, has several meanings associated with it. 

For instance, we often find ourselves in the position where we are required to counsel a friend or a family member, listening to their talks patiently and giving them our own personal advice. There are also religious organizations and religious mentors who help people find peace and solace through another kind of counselling, in which they offer advice as well. 

These kinds of general counselling, one must realize, is much different than professional counselling. 

One major difference is that a professional counsellor is an extensively trained person who applies several different counselling techniques which are also well researched and empirically tested ways of helping people. Professional trained counsellors also have experience working with many narratives and that also differentiates them from a friend.

What is Counselling?

Counselling is a process that involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained individual willing to offer help and an individual willing to seek help in a confidential, safe and unconditionally accepting setting. It is a type of talking therapy in which a counsellor listens to your problems and helps you deal with your emotional problems, increase your self awareness, self-esteem and gain confidence in your abilities as well as a sense of wellbeing. 

What To Expect In A Counselling Session

Irrespective of whether you are going to visit a counselor for the first time or not, and regardless of why you’re seeing one, knowing what to expect from these counselling sessions will help you be at ease during the session itself.

Counselling is a voluntary relationship, and a client cannot be forced to seek counselling. The first session involves the client talking about their general dissatisfaction from life and what brought them to the counsellor in the first place. Usually the first set of questions that a counsellor may ask you about during the first session revolve around you and your life which allows your counsellor to make a preliminary assessment of your situation. Once the client feels comfortable, a few more questions that they can expect may be about why they chose to seek help; personal history including family dynamics, and then about physical manifestations of your issues and other symptoms. All this information, or anything that you share in counselling will always remain confidential. 

Counselling sessions are always a team effort, and to make progress the clients need to be open about their feelings and actively participate for their own benefit.

Follow-up sessions are also held, generally on a weekly basis and along with those, review assessments are also taken to take note of your progress and proceed accordingly. 

Difference Between Counselling and Psychotherapy

Counselling and psychotherapy may seem similar, and most definitely are in some dimensions, but it is important to understand the difference between the two. Both a counsellor and a psychotherapist may help a client confront their problems, find acceptance in themselves and deal with their issues and develop solutions. At the same time, counselling and psychotherapy are different in terms of the approaches, models, time invested, etc. 

Counselling is a much briefer and treatment that focuses primarily on the behavioural aspect of the process. A particular symptom or solution is targeted and suggestions are offered to deal with the same. Counsellors offer guidance and support for the individual to navigate through their life challenges. 

Psychotherapy is a long term treatment that involves gaining important insights into much more chronic physical and mental health conditions. Several approaches may be used and they affect the whole procedure and how it is carried out. However the treatment usually focuses on the thought processes of the client, and forming connections between this and the past experiences of the client so as to form solutions and action plans. It addresses the source of the problem and where it stems from so that a long lasting solution and personal growth can be achieved. Psychotherapy may also involve testing procedures to analyze the personality, intelligence, etc. of the client. It is big picture oriented and focuses on a holistic approach instead of zoning in on specific behaviours. 

Difference between Psychiatric Help and Counselling

Psychiatric help is also quite different from counselling, definitely even more so than therapy. While both a psychiatrist and a counsellor’s goal would be to treat their client or their patient (in case of the psychiatrist), both these fields are very set apart and distinguishably separate. 

A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who specializes in preventing, diagnosing and treating mental illnesses. They are trained in differentiating mental health conditions from underlying medical conditions that could be the reason for psychiatric problems. They track the effects of mental disorders on associated or preexisting physical conditions such as cardiac problems or high blood pressure. They also prescribe medicines and monitor their effects on the body. 

Whereas, a counsellor focuses on providing talk therapy and psychological treatments and specialize in treating mental illnesses. They help the clients deal with their emotional, behavioural and cognitive problems and provide guidance and support. They do not hold a medical degree, however, they are extensively trained in applying various approaches for the purpose of reducing symptoms and help their clients go through with a solution-oriented action plan. The outcomes include increased ability to tackle major life problems and manage one’s mental health condition. 

Types of issues counselling can help you with:

  • Coping with stress, anxiety, and other emotional problems 
  • Coping with grief i.e the death of a loved one or break up from a long term relationship
  • Coping with work-related stress
  • Exploring issues related to sexual identity and preferences
  • Resolving issues related to self-esteem, denial, guilt and shame
  • Dealing with issues preventing you from actualizing and realizing your potential in career, health and relationships
  • Understanding yourself, your problems much more holistically and fully

Frequently Asked Questions about Counselling

Q. Who invented counselling or who coined the term “counselling” for the first time?

Carl Rogers coined the term “counselling” and is a very important contributor to the field of counselling and psychotherapy. He came up with the process of person centred therapy or client centred therapy. He didn’t have a medical qualification and thus was prevented from calling his work psychotherapy.

Q. What are the different types of counselling?

Following are some of the types of counselling: 

  • Integrative Therapy.
  • Humanistic Therapy.
  • Person-Centred Therapy.
  • Psychodynamic Psychotherapy/Counselling.
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
  • Gestalt Therapy.
  • Cognitive Therapy.
  • Behavioural Therapy.


Depression is a mood disorder that involves a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as a part of life. Major life events, such as bereavement or the loss of a job, can lead to depression. However, doctors only consider feelings of grief to be part of depression if they persist.
Depression is an ongoing problem, not a passing one. It consists of episodes during which the symptoms last for at least 2 weeks. Depression can last for several weeks, months, or years.

Persistent feeling of sadness slowly eating you away.


  • Reduced interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed.
  • A loss of sexual desire.
  • Changes in appetite.
  • Unintentional weight loss or gain.
  • Sleeping too much or too little.
  • Agitation, restlessness, and pacing up and down.
  • Slowed movement and speech.
  • Fatigue or loss of energy.
  • Difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions.


The medical community does not fully understand the causes of depression. There are many possible causes, and sometimes, various factors combine to trigger symptoms.

Factors that are likely to play a role include:

  • Genetic Features.
  • Changes in the brain’s neurotransmitter levels.
  • Environmental factors.
  • Psychological and social factors.
  • Additional conditions,such as bipolar disorder.
Hiding and masking of true feelings is a common trait in depression.


Depression is treatable, and managing symptoms usually involves three components:

  1. Support: This can range from discussing practical solutions and possible causes to educating family members.
  2. Drug treatment: A doctor may prescribe antidepressants.
  3. Psychotherapy: Psychological, or talking, therapies for depression include CBT, interpersonal psychotherapy, and problem-solving treatment, among others. For some forms of depression, psychotherapy is usually the first-line treatment, while some people respond better to a combination of psychotherapy and medications. CBT and interpersonal psychotherapy are the two main types of psychotherapy for depression. A person may have CBT in individual sessions with a therapist, in groups, over the telephone, or online. Interpersonal therapy aims to help people identify:
  • Emotional problems that affect relationships and communication.
  • How these issues also affect their mood.
  • How all of this may be changed.


Aerobic exercise raises endorphin levels and stimulates the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is linked with mood. This may help relieve mild depression.

Post Written By: InContact Counselling & Training.
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Anxiety is your body’s natural response to stress. It’s a feeling of fear or apprehension about what’s to come. In most cases it causes people to feel fearful and nervous. Anxiety is a normal and often healthy emotion. However, when a person regularly feels disproportionate levels of anxiety, it might become a medical disorder.

Anxiety is a key part of several different disorders :

  • Panic Disorder: Experiencing recurring panic attacks at unexpected times. A person with panic disorder lives in constant fear .
  • Agoraphobia: Excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.
  • Social Anxiety disorder: Extreme fear of being judged by others in social situations.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Recurring irrational thoughts that lead you to perform specific, repeated behaviors.
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder: Fear of being away from home or loved ones.
  • Illness Anxiety Disorder: Anxiety about your health (formerly called hypochondria).
  • Post Traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Anxiety following a traumatic event.
  • Selective Mutism: A somewhat rare disorder associated with anxiety. Selective mutism occurs when people fail to speak in specific social situations despite having normal language skills.
Constantly thinking state interfering with normal day to day activities.

Symptoms of Anxiety :

  • Panic, fear, and uneasiness
  • Sleep problems
  • Not being able to stay calm and still
  • Cold, sweaty, numb or tingling hands or feet
  • Shortness of breath
  • Heart palpitations
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea
  • Tense muscles
  • Dizziness.

Self-treatment (natural remedies are used for anxiety) :

  • Getting enough sleep
  • Meditating
  • Staying active and exercising
  • Eating a healthy diet
  • Quit smoking cigarettes
  • Avoiding alcohol and caffeine

Other Treatments for Anxiety :

  • Counselling: A standard way of treating anxiety is psychological counseling.
  • CBT ( Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) :This type of psychotherapy aims to recognize and change harmful thought patterns that form the foundation of anxious and troublesome feelings.
  • Combination of counselling and therapy.
Headache and feeling of dizziness are some of the physical effects of anxiety.

Prevention of Anxiety :

  • Cut down on intake of caffeine, tea, cola, and chocolate.
  • Ask your doctor or pharmacist before using over-the-counter (OTC) or herbal remedies, for any chemicals that may make anxiety symptoms worse.
  • Eat right and maintain a healthy diet.
  • Keep a regular sleep pattern.
  • Avoid alcohol, cannabis, and other recreational drugs.
  • Get help early. Anxiety, like many other mental health conditions, can be harder to treat if you wait.

Post Written By: InContact Counselling & Training. For rights to reproduce post, please connect with us on

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